The European Commission recognised the need to develop CCS when in 2006 it called for up to 12 demonstration plants to be built by 2015 - a position endorsed by the Council the following year. No such plants have been built. The Commission continues to pay lip service to the need for CCS, and in its Sustainable Carbon Cycles Communication of 2021 indicated that up to 500m tonnes of CO2 needs to be captured from industrial plants or recovered from the atmosphere by 2021. The Commission’s Net Zero Industry Act, adopted in March 2023, set the first-ever binding targets for the permanent underground storage of CO2.